Ceph Error “Warning: the ECDSA host key for ‘SERVER’ differs from the key for the IP address ‘IP'”

Ceph Error “Warning: the ECDSA host key for ‘SERVER’ differs from the key for the IP address ‘IP'”

Category : How-to

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ceph-logoI recently received the below error when installing Ceph on Proxmox which related the the key for the local machine. After running the ceph-deploy install command I was presented with an error and the Ceph command halted.

ceph-deploy install ceph1.jamescoyle.net ceph2.jamescoyle.net ceph3.jamescoyle.net

After agreeing to the initial prompt I received the below error.

Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'ceph1.jamescoyle.net' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
Warning: the ECDSA host key for 'ceph1.jamescoyle.net' differs from the key for the IP address '192.168.50.102'
Offending key for IP in /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts:2
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Write failed: Broken pipe
[ceph_deploy][ERROR ] RuntimeError: connecting to host: ceph1.jamescoyle.net resulted in errors: HostNotFound ceph1.jamescoyle.net

You need to remove the local key using ssh-keygen and then allow the machine to re-add the key when you first connect to it. The above error was complaining about the key for IP 192.168.50.102, therefore add this IP to the end of the below command.

ssh-keygen -R [IP]

Example:

ssh-keygen -R 192.168.50.102
/root/.ssh/known_hosts updated.
Original contents retained as /root/.ssh/known_hosts.old

Now rerun your Ceph command and accept the key warning and your Ceph command should complete.

 


Create SSH Key Authentication Between Nodes

Category : How-to

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Secure key authentication is one of the more secure ways to grant users access to a Linux server. The standard password authentication which is usually used to login to a server is replaced with an SSH key which is presented when authenticating. This increases security as passwords can eventually be cracked using brute force or even guessed in some circumstances. SSH keys are impossible to guess and almost impossible to to hack using brute force due to their length and complexity.

A SSH key is actually two strings of characters – one which is private and is used to connect to the server and another which is public which sits on the server itself.

Run the below command to create the key pair on the client machine.

ssh-keygen -t rsa

Accept the default location to save the key which will be inside the current users home directory:

Enter file in which to save the key (/home/james/.ssh/id_rsa):

For additional security, you can add a passhrase to the private key. This means the key cannot be used without the passphrase which increases the security of the key itself. Simply press return if you do not wish to use a passphrase.

Note: if you are using the key for applications to gain access to other servers, it’s unlikely that a passphrase will be supported.  

Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Your identification has been saved in /home/james/.ssh/id_rsa
Your public key has been saved in /home/james/.ssh/id_rsa.pub. 
The key fingerprint is:
46:ba:02:fd:2f:9c:b9:39:ec:6c:90:50:d8:ec:7b:00 [email protected]
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ RSA 2048]----+
|   +             |
|  E +            |
|   +    .        |
|  ..o  o         |
|  ...+. S        |
|   .+..o         |
|    .=oo         |
|     oOo         |
|     o=+.        |
+-----------------+

The two keys have been created;

  • Private: /home/james/.ssh/id_rsa
  • Public: /home/james/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

The final step is to copy the public key to the machine which you are going to connect to. In Debian or Ubuntu you can use the ssh-copy-id – you will need to change [USER] for the user who you will connect to the remote machine as and [SERVER] to the hostname or IP address of the remote server you will connect to.

ssh-copy-id [USER]@[SERVER]

Not all Linux distributions will contain the required ssh-copy-id utility, many CentOS/ Red Hat distributions do not for example, so you will need to use the manual method. Again, you will need to substitute the [USER] and [SERVER] attributes to the details of your remote machine.

cat /home/james/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh [USER]@[SERVER] "cat >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys"

It is not always recommended for security reasons but you can copy this public key to multiple machines so that you can use the same private key to connect to multiple remote machines.


Synchronise a GlusterFS volume to a remote site using geo replication

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gluster-orange-antGlusterFS can be used to synchronise a directory to a remote server on a local network for data redundancy or load balancing to provide a highly scalable and available file system.

The problem is when the storage you would like to replicate to is on a remote network, possibly in a different location, GlusterFS does not work very well. This is because GlusterFS is not designed to work when there is a high latency between replication nodes.

GlusterFS provides a feature called geo replication to perform batch based replication of a local volume to a remote machine over SSH.

The below example will use three servers:

  • gfs1.jamescoyle.net is one of the two running GlusterFS volume servers.
  • gfs2.jamescoyle.net is the second of the two running GlusterFS volume servers. gfs1 and gfs2 both server a single GlusterFS replicated volume called datastore.
  • remote.jamescoyle.net is the remote file server which the GlusterFS volume will be replicated to.

GlusterFS uses an SSH connection to the remote host using SSH keys instead of passwords. We’ll need to create an SSH key using ssh-keygen to use for our connection. Run the below command and press return when asked to enter the passphrase to create a key without a passphrase. 

ssh-keygen -f /var/lib/glusterd/geo-replication/secret.pem

The output will look like the below:

Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /var/lib/glusterd/geo-replication/secret.pem.
Your public key has been saved in/var/lib/glusterd/geo-replication/secret.pem.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
46:ba:02:fd:2f:9c:b9:39:ec:6c:90:50:d8:ec:7b:00 [email protected]
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ RSA 2048]----+
|   +             |
|  E +            |
|   +    .        |
|  ..o  o         |
|  ...+. S        |
|   .+..o         |
|    .=oo         |
|     oOo         |
|     o=+.        |
+-----------------+

Now you need to copy the public certificate to your remote server in the authorized_keys file. The remote user must be a super user (currently a limitation of GlusterFS) which is root in the below example. If you have multiple GlusterFS volumes in a cluster then you will need to copy the key to all GlusterFS servers.

cat /var/lib/glusterd/geo-replication/secret.pem.pub | ssh [email protected] "cat >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys"

Make sure the remote server has glusterfs-server installed. Run the below command to install glusterfs-server on remote.jamescoyle.net. You may need to use yum instead of apt-get for Red Hat versions of Linux.

apt-get install glusterfs-server

Create a folder on remote.jamescoyle.net which will be used for the remote replication. All data which transferrs to this machine will be stored in this folder.

mkdir /gluster
mkdir /gluster/geo-replication

Create the geo-replication volume with Gluster and replace the below values with your own:

  • [SOURCE_DATASTORE] – is the local Gluster data volume which will be replicated to the remote server.
  • [REMOTE_SERVER] – is the remote server to receive all the replication data.
  • [REMOATE_PATH] – is the path on the remote server to store the files.
gluster volume geo-replication [SOURCE_DATASTORE] [REMOTE_SERVER]:[REMOTE_PATH] start

Example:

gluster volume geo-replication datastore remote.jamescoyle.net:/gluster/geo-replication/ start

Starting geo-replication session between datastore & remote.jamescoyle.net:/gluster/geo-replication/ has been successful

Sometimes on the remote machine, gsyncd (part of the GlusterFS package) may be installed in a different location to the local GlusterFS nodes.

Your log file may show a message similar to below:

Popen: ssh> bash: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/glusterfs/gsyncd: No such file or directory

In this scenario you can specify the config command the remote gsyncd location.

gluster volume geo-replication datastore remote.jamescoyle.net:/gluster/geo-replication config remote-gsyncd /usr/lib/glusterfs/glusterfs/gsyncd

You will then need to run the start command to start the volume synchronisation.

gluster volume geo-replication datastore remote.jamescoyle.net:/gluster/geo-replication/ start

You can view the status of your replication task by running the status command.

gluster volume geo-replication datastore remote.jamescoyle.net:/gluster/geo-replication/ status

You can stop your volume replication at any time by running the stop command.

gluster volume geo-replication datastore remote.jamescoyle.net:/gluster/geo-replication/ stop

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