dd Cheat Sheet

dd Cheat Sheet

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dd is one of the most versatile IO tools available for Linux. It’s used in a variety of ways ranging from Disk Benchmarking through to creating SWAP files and copying downloaded disk images to physical disks.

dd takes the following common switches:

  • if is the input file name and location.
  • of is the name and location of the output file.
  • bs is the block size that will be used to read and/ or write the file. Increasing this can help with performance  or dictate how much data will be read or written.
  • count is the number of blocks that will be used.
  • seek is the number of blocks on the output file that will be skipped before writing any data.
  • skip is the number of blocks that will be skipped on the input file before starting to read data.
  • conv is a comma separated list of additional parameters that can be used. See the man dd for more information.

The below headings will list a few example uses of dd in a typical Linux environment.

Backup disk partition with dd

You can use dd to copy an entire disk partition to a virtual disk file. This can be useful for creating a backup or to clone the disk to another machine.

You can use this method to read a CD-ROM, USB drive or Flash disk to a file in the same way – just make sure the device is inserted and point the if= part of the dd command to the relevant /dev/ device.

You could also compress the image as part of the process with gzip.

Restore disk partition with dd

Similar to the above command, you can use dd to replace a disk’s partition with a virtual disk file.

If you compressed the image then you can decompress it first all in one go:

Create a fixed size file with dd

You can create a fixed size file with DD that will be created in the location you specify.

This will create a file in /root/test of 1024 bytes in size. Increase either bs or count to change the size of the file. The resulting size will be bs count. You can also use shorhand sizes such as K, M and G with bs, for example bs=1G,

Create a SWAP file with dd

dd can be used to create a SWAP file that can be used as a SWAP device by your computer. This is often needed with smaller instances on Cloud providers such as AWS.

The starting point is the same as the above command to create a file with the size that you’d like to use for swap. See my other blog post for more info.

Split a file with dd

dd can be used to read just part of a file, given offset and length coordinates. The below example will skip the first 100 bytes of the file and output the proceeding 10 bytes (byte 101 – 111).

You could repeat this process to split a large file into multiple smaller files, to be able to email it for example.

Merge multiple files with dd

You can merge multiple files into a single file with dd. Following on from the above split example, the below will rejoin the 3 file parts into a single file.

Convert text to lower case with dd

You can use the conv switch with dd to transform ascii text from upper case to lower case and visa-versa. Using lcase and ucase in the conv switch will instruct dd to convert the text as it’s written.

The below example will convert all characters in the filetoconvert.txt. file to lower case.

 


Restore a single Proxmox OpenVZ Container From The command Line

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proxmox logo gradI mostly use Proxmox from the command line, or terminal, and I have created a few scripts to perform common and repetitive tasks.

The below script will restore a single OpenVZ container to the latest backup file available in the dump directory. The scripts takes a parameter for the container VMID to restore from backup. If the container exists, it will be stopped and removed before restoring the latest backup file available in the backup directory.

The script iterates through all of your backup files and only restores the latest based on the date in the file name, and not the date of the file creation or modified.

You will need to set the BACKUP_PATH variable to the location of your backup folder with no trailing slash, and BACKUP_EXT with the extension used for your chosen backup format.

If you save this script in the /bin then you can call the script from the terminal without having to move to the scripts directory. Create the file and paste the below script into it.

Make the script executable using chmod.

Use the below command, and substitute [VMID] with the container VMID to restore, to run the script.

See my other script on restoring multiple OpenVZ containers in Proxmox.


Restore all Proxmox OpenVZ Containers From The command Line

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proxmox logo gradI use Proxmox to host a development environment using OpenVZ containers. I take frequent backups of all OpenVZ containers in the event I need to roll back any development work.

The below script restores all OpenVZ containers which are available in the backup folder, but not available in the Proxmox GUI. Using this script, you can remove the containers in Proxmox which you would like to restore and run the script to restore the latest backup.

The script iterates through all of your backup files and only restores the latest based on the date in the file name.

You will need to set the BACKUP_PATH variable to the location of your backup folder with no trailing slash, and BACKUP_EXT with the extension used for your chosen backup format.

If you save this script in the /bin then you can call the script from the terminal without having to move to the scripts directory. Create the file and paste the below script into it.

Make the script executable using chmod.

Use the below command to run the script and restore all containers which are missing from backup.


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